Southeast Asia comprises 11 countries, 10 of which form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ASEAN is a bloc focused on promoting economic growth and regional stability. With a combined population of about 667 million people, ASEAN represents about 10% of the global population (IMF, 2021). ASEAN has set the goal of obtaining almost a quarter of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2025, aligning the region with international commitments of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (United Nations, 2015a) and the Paris Agreement (United Nations, 2015b). This regional commitment translates the understanding of energy transition beyond its member-states’ environmental sustainability to focus on improving quality of life, including access to sustainable fuels.
However, fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) still account for 66% of the regional energy mix in 2020, mainly from oil use and gas- and coal-fired power generation. In terms of renewables, hydropower still dominates the regional energy landscape at 63% of renewable energy sources, while solar and wind energy contributed only 9% to the ASEAN energy mix in 2029 (ASEAN Center for Energy, 2021). Oil, coal, and hydro are energy systems with negative consequences on climate, ecosystems, biodiversity, and the livelihoods of communities.
This publication briefly describes some key background notes, highlighting the region’s energy profile, energy poverty, and climate change vulnerability.
Table of contents
Introduction - p. 3
Energy Profile - p. 4
Energy Poverty - p. 6
Climate Vulnerabilities - p. 7
References - p. 8